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Index

ambiguity 41, 54, 116, 119, 152
lexical 12, 15, 26
syntactic 12, 154
arbitrariness 16, 33, 54, 66, 167, 177
Austin, John Langshaw 16, 152
Ben-Yami, Hanoch 21, 25, 37, 157, 168, 173–175
bivalence, principle of 17, 44, 58–59, 63, 69, 84, 89, 115, 136
Black, Max 63, 91, 139
blindness, argument from 99, 133, 135, 137–138, 151
borderline area , penumbra
borderline case 16–17, 42, 50
actual 16
possible 16
thick notion of 13–14, 18
thin notion of 13, 16
borderline susceptibility 13–14, 16, 28, 42, 50, 52, 54, 56, 69, 112, 136, 162
borderlineness , borderline susceptibility
calculus conception of natural language 141, 150, 152, 155
category mistake 17, 39
charity, argument from 90, 97
closure principle, epistemic 78–79, 83
cluster term , vagueness, combinatorial
context-sensitivity 27, 101, 103, 108, 128, 154, 164–165
contextualism , theories of vagueness
boundary-shifting 114–115
extension-shifting 114–115
indexical 110–111, 115
non-indexical 108, 110–111, 114–115, 130, 134, 136–137
pragmatic 99, 114–115, 122, 128, 136
psychological 99, 114–115, 122, 136
definiteness operator 44–45, 69, 74, 86–89, 143, 160
degree theory , theories of vagueness
dimension of comparison 21, 45, 158, 162, 166, 168, 170
discretion 124–125, 127, 164, 177–178
Dummett, Michael 23–24, 37, 57, 75–76, 157, 175
epistemicism , theories of vagueness
Eubulides of Miletus 19
excluded middle, law of 15, 17, 43–44, 58, 69, 89, 98, 145
extensionality, axiom of 60, 90
Fine, Kit 16, 26, 44, 48, 69–72, 86–89, 115, 140, 144–145
forced-march experiment 90–92, 94–96, 98, 121–122, 138–139, 147, 176
Frege, Gottlob 66, 151
generality 12, 26–27
higher-order vagueness , vagueness, higher-order
ideal language 4
indefiniteness operator 86
indeterminacy
de dicto 39
de re 39
linguistic 12, 14, 26
of necessary and sufficient conditions 35, 52
ontic 38
referential 38, 40
semantic 14, 16, 18, 36, 38, 43, 56, 58, 84, 86, 90, 97, 144
indexicality 15, 100, 103–104, 106, 110
indistinguishability 21–22, 113–114, 116, 125
inexact knowledge 36, 77–82
inexactness 12, 80
interest relativism , theories of vagueness, interest relative
Kaplan, David 100–103, 106–107, 109–110, 115, 130
Keefe, Rosanna 69, 72–76, 85–86, 88–90, 140–142, 145, 147–148
KK principle 78–80, 82–83
Kripke, Saul 29, 40
Lewis, David 17, 37–38, 40–41, 101, 107–108, 125, 127
MacFarlane, John 103–104, 106, 108, 110, 134
Machina, Kenton 24, 44, 63, 68, 141, 145, 173
margin for error principle 36, 77, 79–81
metaphysical indeterminacy , indeterminacy, ontic
metaphysical vagueness , vagueness, ontic
non-contradiction, law of 61, 69, 120, 144–145
open texture 28, 32
ordinary language 4–6, 12, 16–17, 36, 150, 152, 154
ostension 144, 154, 167–168, 170, 175
paradox of accumulation 20, 23
paradox of decomposition 20, 23
Peirce, Charles Sanders 14–16, 19, 26, 36, 43, 56
penumbra 18, 37, 46, 53, 67, 82, 96, 123, 136, 138, 159, 176
penumbral connection 61, 70, 144
precisification 25, 32, 48, 69–71, 73, 75–76, 87–88, 90, 156
predicate
mathematical 3, 27–28, 63, 161
observational 23, 114, 175
problem of the many 40, 42
problem of the ship of Theseus 42
Putnam, Hilary 29
Raffman, Diana 12, 44–48, 53, 57, 63, 91–98, 113, 115, 122, 125–126, 129–130, 146–147
received view of vagueness , vagueness, received view
reflective equilibrium 75, 140, 141, 147
Russell, Bertrand 14, 15, 19, 26, 36–37, 39, 43, 56
Sainsbury, Richard Mark 54, 138, 152–153, 157, 160–161, 164–165, 176
Shapiro, Stewart 12, 28, 77, 92, 113, 122–128, 136
sharpening , precisification
Soames, Scott 32–33, 36, 91–92, 122–129, 133–136
sorites susceptibility 13, 23, 36–37, 50, 53, 90
thick notion of 13
thin notion of 13
soriticality , sorites susceptibility
speciation 3
species term 3
subvaluationism , theories of vagueness
supervaluationism , theories of vagueness
theories of vagueness
contextualist 26–27, 45, 48, 57, 90, 99, 111, 138, 141, 144, 147, 151, 154, 156, 165
continuum-valued 57, 62, 68–70, 82, 84–85
epistemicist 25, 36–37, 57–58, 76, 83, 96–97
incoherentist 23, 57
interest relative 136–137
multiple range 48
subvaluationist 25, 45
supervaluationist 25, 44, 57–58, 61, 69, 76, 82, 84, 86, 88–90, 98, 122–123, 128, 145–146, 154, 156, 159, 165
three-valued 25, 44, 58, 62, 64, 69, 88, 98, 122–123, 128, 159
tolerance 21–23, 25, 33, 50–52, 56, 61, 73, 76–77, 99, 112–113, 117, 126, 128, 136, 141, 145, 148, 150–155, 157, 168–169, 171, 176–178
truth-value gap 25, 45, 48, 50, 59, 62, 64, 69–71, 74, 97–98, 136
truth-value glut 25, 45, 98
two-dimensional semantics 100, 103, 110
Tye, Michael 39–43, 59–63, 65, 69, 88–90, 115, 145
uncertainty 15–19, 30, 43, 91, 138, 168, 177
Unger, Peter 20, 23, 40, 57, 143
unwanted precision, argument from 84, 90
vague identity , vagueness, ontic
vague object , vagueness, ontic
vagueness
as a defect 4
as a virtue 4
combinatorial 34–36, 49, 52, 56, 162–163
degree 33, 35, 49, 52, 56, 163
extensional 31, 48, 60
higher-order 13–14, 18, 53, 55, 72, 82–83, 86–89, 159
intensional 16, 31, 48, 60
kinds of 36
multi-dimensional 14, 32–33, 35–36, 51–52, 91
one-dimensional , vagueness, uni-dimensional
ontic 17, 38–41
received view of 15, 19, 36
semantic 42
uni-dimensional 14, 32–33, 52
vagueness, symptom of 13, 16, 43
Waismann, Friedrich 28, 31
Williamson, Timothy 36, 43, 57, 59, 69, 73, 76–83, 87, 94, 115, 146, 150, 160
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 4, 6–7, 9, 75, 144, 148–150, 160, 165, 177
Wright, Crispin 21–22, 50, 56, 112–113, 117, 126, 136, 141, 148–151, 157–158, 166–167

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The Sorites Paradox and the Nature and Logic of Vague Language