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In this volume we have placed three essays concerning the history of philosophy in general before the thematic focus. These general essays comprise a new discussion of scepticism, an analysis of logical atomism, and a discussion of the concept of number. The thematic focus concerning the practical syllosism was organzized by our colleague Christof Rapp, Berlin. They have succeeded in putting together an impressive sequence of interlocking essays about a perennially important topic from ancient philosophy. The authors: Klaus Corncilius, Yiftach J.H. Fehige, Wolfgang Gombocz & Alessandro Salice, Paula Gottlieb, Jean-Baptiste Gourinat, Jörg Hardy, Vojtech Kolman, Holger Leerhoff, Pierre Marie Morel, Anselm Müller, Anthony W. Price, Christof Rapp & Philipp Brüllmann, Matthew Tugby, Sven Walter, Ron Wilburn.
Editors: Uwe Meixner and Albert Newen
The authors: Ignacio Angelelli, Rüdiger Bittner, Thomas A. Blackson, Daniel Dohrn, Julian Fink, Axel Gelfert, Ralf Goeres, Christoph Horn Christoph Rapp, Andreas Krebs, Dirk Koppelberg, Yakir Levin, Erik J. Loomis, Marc A. Moffett, Michael Wreen
Editors: Uwe Meixner and Albert Newen
Das Jahrbuch bietet ein Forum für Veröffentlichungen zu Klassikern der Philosophiegeschichte, für deren Interpretation bislang kaum die moderne formale Logik als Hilfsmittel herangezogen wurde. Indem die logische Analyse als methodisches Instrument bei der Interpretation angewendet wird, verschiebt sich der Schwerpunkt der philosophischen Interpretation von einer bislang vorherrschenden rein exegetischen Betrachtung hin zu einer systematischen Rekonstruktion einer Theorie mit Blick auf die leitenden Sachfragen eines Textes. Die systematische Rekonstruktion einer Theorie zeichnet sich dadurch aus, daß auf der Basis des Textes Interpretationsmaßnahmen plausibel gemacht werden, die es erlauben, einem Klassiker der Philosophiegeschichte eine systematische Theorie in bezug auf eine Sachfrage zuzuschreiben. Diese Theorie wird dann mit Hilfe der modernen Logik ausführlich erläutert und konkretisiert. Durch diese Vorgehensweise können an einen klassischen Autor ganz neue Fragen gestellt werden, die dann im Rahmen der systematischen Rekonstruktion bearbeitet werden. Insgesamt verspricht diese Betrachtungsweise, ein neues Licht auf die Klassiker der Philosophiegeschichte zu werfen und diese dadurch für Sachfragen, die bis in die gegenwärtige Philosophie hinein sehr strittig sind, fruchtbar zu machen.
The book shows the relevance of meta-ethical and metaphysical considerations to determine the nature of law and the connection between objective moral and legal judgements. The investigation analyses the legal theories of Ronald Dworkin, Jürgen Habermas and Michael Moore. The conclusion of the scrutiny is that the discussed views fail to explain the plausible links between objective moral and legal judgements. The lesson to learn from the failure of these philosophical perspectives is that we need to revise fundamental meta-ethical conceptions within law. In addition to the view that meta-ethical and metaphysical considerations play a central role in our understanding of objective moral and legal judgements, we enforce the idea that it is necessary to revise our meta-ethical and metaphysical premises in jurisprudence. Epistemic and meta-ethical abstinence in legal theory, in this way, is challenged by a number of criticisms. The outcome of our reflection is that in legal theory, as in many other disciplines, we need to take truth and objectivity seriously.
An Enquiry into Relevance and Validity
Author: Dirk Hartmann
The purpose of teaching logic in philosophy is to enable us to evaluate arguments with respect to (formal) validity. Standard logics refer to a concept of validity which allows for the relation of implication to hold between premises and conclusion even in cases where there is no “relevant” connection between the premises and the conclusion. A prominent example for this is the rule “Ex-Falso-Quodlibet” (EFQ), which allows us to infer an arbitrary proposition from a contradiction. The tolerance of irrelevance endorsed by standard logics unfortunately engenders that they cannot adequately fulfill their intended task of analyzing and evaluating philosophical, scientific and everyday-life arguments – instead, their application even gives rise to a multitude of artificial philosophical pseudoproblems (like the problem of the disposition predicates or the problem of counterfactuals). As alternatives to standard logics, there exist non-standard systems called “relevance logics” or “relevant logics” meant to avoid irrelevance. The problem with these systems, however, is that the mainstream relational semantics (“worlds semantics”) available for them is to be considered unintuitive and complex to a degree which is apt to render relevant logics unattractive to the majority of philosophers who are on the lookout not only for adequate, but also simple and efficient technical means for evaluating arguments. Therefore, the main aim of this treatise is to provide an alternative semantics (“rules semantics”) which is comparatively easy to grasp and simple in application. A second aim of the book is to extend the semantics as least as far as it takes to cover more or less all the logical notions philosophers need in their “everyday analyzing”. This includes first order predicate logic, higher order logic (for analyzing talk about “properties” etc.), identity, definite descriptions, abstraction principles and modal logic. This book can be read without having any more background than a good introductory course in classical logic provides.
Editors: Uwe Meixner and Albert Newen
Mit Beiträgen von: Martin Carrier, Anthony Dardes, Kevin Guilfoy, Carsten Held, Gyula Klima, Volker Peckhaus, Eric M. Rubenstein, Rudolf Schüßler, Heda Segvic, Niko Strohbach, David Sullivan, Ron Wilburn.
Reform Efforts of Logic in Germany 1781-1879
Author: Risto Vilkko
Many historians and philosophers of logic have claimed that during the 19th century, before Gottlob Frege’s Begriffsschrift (1879), there was a long period of stagnation or even of decline in the field of logic. The aim of this book is to show that such an evaluation of 19th century logic is misdirected and needs to be corrected. A Hundred Years of Logical Investigations discusses both philosophical and mathematical efforts to reform logic in Germany from Kant’s Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1781) up to Frege’s Begriffsschrift (1879). Amongst others, J.F. Herbart, M.W. Drobisch, G.W.F. Hegel, F.A. Trendelenburg, R. Graßmann, and E. Schröder are discussed in addition to Kant and Frege with regard to their thoughts about the place, the task, and the justification of logic not only as a philosophical discipline, but also as a formal and fundamental theory of science.