Now that robots are leaving their cages in factory shop floors and laboratories, they are confronted with human everyday worlds. With this transfer from being exclusively concerned with technical systems to building socio-technical systems, everyday worlds become a wicked problem of robotics: They are interpretative, highly context dependent and products of constant interactive negotiation. The key to understanding and modelling this wicked problem is acknowledging the complexity of a human interaction. We stress three basic factors, which are constitutive for this complexity: indexicality, reciprocity of expectations, and double contingency. Although it is in the nature of these factors that they cannot be formalized, roboticists are forced to translate them into complicated, rather than complex, formalizations.
This book discusses major issues of the current AI debate from the perspectives of philosophy, theology, and the social sciences: Can AI have a consciousness? Is superintelligence possible and probable? How does AI change individual and social life? Can there be artificial persons? What influence does AI have on religious worldviews? In Western societies, we are surrounded by artificially intelligent systems. Most of these systems are embedded in online platforms. But embodiments of AI, be it by voice or by actual physical embodiment, give artificially intelligent systems another dimension in terms of their impact on how we perceive these systems, how they shape our communication with them and with fellow humans and how we live and work together. AI in any form gives a new twist to the big questions that humanity has concerned herself with for centuries: What is consciousness? How should we treat each other - what is right and what is wrong? How do our creations change the world we are living in? Which challenges do we have to face in the future?