. This examination will show that Heraclitus frames his own thought in terms of his rebuke of this naïve view of wisdom and the world, which came before him. I will argue that Heraclitus does not advise avoiding experience of many things, rather, he advises rejecting experience of things as merely many
There seems to be tension between portrayals of Socrates as both a committed philosopher and a pious man. For instance, one might doubt Socrates’ commitment to philosophy since he seems to irrationally defer to a daimonion. On the other hand, the fact that he challenges messages from Oracles (Apology 21–22) and the gods’ role concerning the origin of the pious (Euthyphro 10–15) draws into question Socrates’ piety. In this paper, I argue that Socratic piety and rationality are not only compatible, but they are also symbiotic. Socrates could not be rational without being pious, nor could he be pious without being rational because, for him, care and curiosity are intimately intertwined. In this regard, Socrates’ epistemology, when applied, resembles Karl Popper’s falsificationism. For Socrates, maintaining human wisdom amounts to regular purification of one’s belief-system. In addition, this maintenance is functionally identical to caring for one’s soul, which is morally imperative.
Abstract: Socrates in the Apology takes an adventurous approach to belief. Although he lacks knowledge, he holds strong beliefs about virtue and the human good. These beliefs count as wisdom only if they are supported by the ability to explain why they are true, and Socrates lacks this ability. To understand why Socrates holds these beliefs, Gorgias 481c–482c is examined. He claims there always to say the same thing and to agree with himself. His beliefs allow him to maintain a stable core of harmonious beliefs. This provides some evidence of the truth of his beliefs and forms one aspect of his human wisdom.
In short, if you are your own harshest critic, the slanders of others will not be painful cuts. And as one makes progress as a philosopher, as these skills become second nature, one should resist the temptation to start priding oneself as someone of great wisdom. And one should
’ De Communi Mathematica Scientia (= DCMS ) (82.17–22). 5 Here, Aristotle argues for the claim that philosophy—the “acquisition and use of wisdom” ( ktēsis te kai chrēsis sophias : 6, 40.2–3/B53, cf. 6, 37.7–9/B8)—is easy :
For with no pay coming from people to those who philosophize (τοῖς
The Importance of Inquiry for Understanding (Ancient) Philosophy
At least since Socrates, philosophy has been understood as the desire for acquiring a special kind of knowledge, namely wisdom, a kind of knowledge that human beings ordinarily do not possess. According to ancient thinkers
wisdom, moderation, and even pleasure; continence, on the other hand, provides all of these in their highest form and results in complete freedom.
Yet the analysis of each side is not always so straightforward. An earlier discussion of friendship has a number of interesting parallels with Plato
strictly necessary for living (64c10–65a8).
The other part of this reasoning for it (65a9–69e4) is that the philosopher’s supreme aim, which is knowledge and wisdom—and this crucially involves the knowledge of essences and Forms (65d4–e5)—depends on what the soul does itself by itself, that is, reasoning