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Author: Arthur Ward

Against Formal Causation in Non-conscious Nature Arthur Ward, Bowling Green State University, Ohio Abstract The problem of natural teleology in biology has traditionally focused on reconciling Aristotle’s efficient and final causation. In this paper, however, I emphasize the importance of formal

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis

Aristotle’s Concept of Nature Stasinos V. Stavrianeas, University of Edinburgh 1. Introduction: Nature and Modality How are we to define the nature of an object? Is the nature of an object what it cannot do without? Is the nature of an object what that object is? Or is the nature of an object

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
Author: Georg Toepfer

Kant’s Teleology, the Concept of the Organism, and the Context of Contemporary Biology Georg Toepfer, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Abstract For Kant, the main aim of teleology in nature is to identify or to segregate as a particular class of objects certain types of causal systems, specifically

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
Interdisciplinary Reflections
Editor: Jan G. Michel
Scientific progress depends crucially on scientific discoveries. Yet the topic of scientific discoveries has not been central to debate in the philosophy of science. This book aims to remedy this shortcoming. Based on a broad reading of the term “science” (similar to the German term “Wissenschaft ”), the book convenes experts from different disciplines who reflect upon several intertwined questions connected to the topic of making scientific discoveries.
Among these questions are the following: What are the preconditions for making scientific discoveries? What is it that we (have to) do when we make discoveries in science? What are the objects of scientific discoveries, how do we name them, and how do scientific names function? Do dis-coveries in, say, physics and biology, share an underlying structure, or do they differ from each other in crucial ways? Are other fields such as theology and environmental studies loci of scientific discovery? What is the purpose of making scientific discoveries? Explaining nature or reality? Increasing scientific knowledge? Finding new truths? If so, how can we account for instructive blunders and serendipities in science?
In the light of the above, the following is an encompassing question of the book: What does it mean to make a discovery in science, and how can scientific discoveries be distinguished from non-scientific discoveries?
"What is human nature?" is considered to be one of the key questions of anthropology. Throughout history, anthropologists have interpreted this question in different ways and often inferred moral conclusions from their answers. Such discussions about anthropological statements and their moral dimension gain new importance when we think about possibilities of self design brought to us by modern biotechniques. Human traits, so far conceived as unchangeable, are now subject to individual design. For that reason, the traditional questions about human nature and its moral significance have to be reconsidered in new ways. This anthology attempts to clarify some of the problems emerging in this context by reconsidering modern concepts of human nature as broadly as possible. It includes a wide spectrum of aspects concerning human nature and its implications for self design, starting with the discussion of anthropological aspects and extending to embedding present and future biotechniques into ethical analysis. Mit Beiträgen von Josep Call & Michael Tomasello, Margo DeMello, Boris Fehse, Logi Gunnarson, Nikolaus Knoepffler, Peter Kramer, Hans-Peter Krüger, Gerald Loeb, Neil Roughley, Gregor Schiemann, Thomas Schramme.
In: Human Nature and Self Design

Analysis, Explication, and the Nature of Concepts Frauke Albersmeier, Heinrich - Heine - Universität Düsseldorf Abstract What does the way we clarify and revise concepts reveal about the nature of concepts? This paper investigates the ontological commitments of conceptual analysis and explica

In: Analysis and Explication in 20th Century Philosophy

Analysis, Explication, and the Nature of Concepts Frauke Albersmeier, Heinrich - Heine - Universität Düsseldorf Abstract What does the way we clarify and revise concepts reveal about the nature of concepts? This paper investigates the ontological commitments of conceptual analysis and explica

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
Author: Marianne Schark

. Dawkins, R. 1998. Universal Darwinism. In: Hull, D. L./Ruse, M. (eds.). The Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Falkenburg, B. 2000. Kants Kosmologie . Frankfurt a.M.: Klostermann. Guyer, P. 1991. Natural Ends and the End of Nature: A Reply to Richard Aquila. Southern Journal of

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis
Author: Neil Roughley

Neil Roughley HUMAN NATURES When we use the expression »human nature«, we can be talking about one of several dilierent things. Indeed, if we are not careful, we may end up talking about more or less all of them at the same time. The purpose of what follows is to distinguish these various

In: Human Nature and Self Design