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Author: Scott Aikin

1 Introduction Epictetus’ Enchiridion (= E) 52 is an exercise in metaphilosophy. In particular, E 52 is an instance of a Stoic philosophical paradox about progress in philosophy. Just as other Stoic paradoxes, such as that only the wise person is free or rich, function as reminders for

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis

. Iamblichus, Protrepticus 40.15–20/B55 According to this progress argument , the practitioners of various forms of expertise are in a kind of race with respect to exactness. In this race, some practitioners get an early lead. Yet philosophers, who leave the starting gate later than their competitors

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis

thus highly intertwined with morality, ethics and the concept of values. As it currently seems impossible to reach any general consensus on the matter, this lack of consensus or progress will hereinafter be referred to as The Normative Problem . Epistemology : Epistemology is the branch of

In: Artificial Intelligence
In: Von Schildkröten und Lügnern
Ethical and social consequences of neuroscientific progress
Author: Saskia K Nagel
Advances in the neurosciences have ethical and social implications which need careful consideration from an interdisciplinary perspective: The present book allows readers with different backgrounds gaining a better understanding of recent progress in the neurosciences and their implications. It first introduces to thinking in applied ethics and offers an approach that does justice to challenges from the neurosciences. State-of-the-art scientific work is discussed with respect to its implications for the individual and society. Methods of brain monitoring are explained looking at potentials and limitations as well as at implications of applications. Second, the wide field of brain manipulation is analysed with a focus on psychopharmacological enhancement. The discussion includes investigation of our capacity to handle the options opened to us, safety issues, the role of social pressures, equality of opportunity and distributive justice, as well as questions of the concept of normality, authenticity and naturalness. The book highlights crucial challenges for the individual, policy, law, and society emerging from neuroscientific and neurotechnological advances.The approach avoids problematic neuro-reductionism and is aware of promises and perils of neuroscientific progress. It thus balances overly sceptical with overenthusiastic positions by offering a profound analysis of scientific and ethical issues.
Author: Tobias Müller

use of computer technology, which has proven to be a helpful tool for tasks that previously required a great deal of time and effort. A new dimension of this technical progress is now seen in “artificial intelligence”, i.e. in computers whose algorithmic processing is known as “machine learning

In: Artificial Intelligence
Zur Rolle des "ich denke" bei Descartes und Kant
Author: Anton F Koch
Da wir objektive Sachverhalte auf fallible Weise und die je eigenen reinen Geisteszustände auf infallible Weise erkennen, können letztere, obwohl real, keine objektiven Zustände sein. Dies ist ein beinahe zwingender Grund für einen Geist-Körper-Dualismus im Sinne Descartes'. Doch da der Dualismus aus anderen Gründen unhaltbar ist, wird in diesem Buch der Versuch gemacht, ihn zu vermeiden mittels der Kantischen These, daß die objektiven Gegebenheiten Erscheinungen sind. In einer Interpretation der Kantischen Transzendentalphilosophie wird die These vom Erscheinungscharakter der Dinge entwickelt und schließlich dahingehend erläutert, daß die Physik unter dem regulativen Ideal der vollständigen Erfassung des Objektiven einen endlosen Progreß von Nachfolgertheorien bildet, deren jede ihre Vorgängertheorie, und sei es um numerisch geringfügiger Korrekturen willen, begrifflich überbietet. So zeigt sich die Objektivierung des Realen als ein prinzipiell unabschließbares Unternehmen. Für den Geist und die Freiheit bleibt Raum, ohne daß dieser Raum einen separaten Realitätsbereich definierte, welcher der Physik prinzipiell unzugänglich wäre.
Interdisciplinary Reflections
Editor: Jan G. Michel
Scientific progress depends crucially on scientific discoveries. Yet the topic of scientific discoveries has not been central to debate in the philosophy of science. This book aims to remedy this shortcoming. Based on a broad reading of the term “science” (similar to the German term “Wissenschaft ”), the book convenes experts from different disciplines who reflect upon several intertwined questions connected to the topic of making scientific discoveries.
Among these questions are the following: What are the preconditions for making scientific discoveries? What is it that we (have to) do when we make discoveries in science? What are the objects of scientific discoveries, how do we name them, and how do scientific names function? Do dis-coveries in, say, physics and biology, share an underlying structure, or do they differ from each other in crucial ways? Are other fields such as theology and environmental studies loci of scientific discovery? What is the purpose of making scientific discoveries? Explaining nature or reality? Increasing scientific knowledge? Finding new truths? If so, how can we account for instructive blunders and serendipities in science?
In the light of the above, the following is an encompassing question of the book: What does it mean to make a discovery in science, and how can scientific discoveries be distinguished from non-scientific discoveries?
Author: Carmen Krämer

1. Introduction Progress towards a society in which robots are our daily attendants seems inevitable and raises new ethical questions. Whereas, at first, ethical issues about robots were related to their impact on human life or to robot interaction with the surrounding world 1 , with the

In: Artificial Intelligence

progress of their submission online. Via the EM website for the Journal at , authors are guided step-by-step through the submission process. The system automatically converts all source files of the article to a single pdf that is then used in the peer-review process. All

In: History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis